Hossein Zahed

Web Developer, Entrepreneur, Software Educator

US astronaut Neil Armstrong, the first man on the Moon, has died aged 82

A statement from his family says he died from complications from heart surgery he had earlier this month. He set foot on the Moon on 20 July 1969, famously describing the event as "one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind".

US President Barack Obama said Armstrong was "among the greatest of American heroes - not just of his time, but of all time". Last November he received the Congressional Gold Medal, the highest US civilian award.

He was the commander of the Apollo 11 spacecraft. More than 500 million TV viewers around the world watched its touchdown on the lunar surface. Armstrong and fellow astronaut Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin spent nearly three hours walking on the moon, collecting samples, conducting experiments and taking photographs. "The sights were simply magnificent, beyond any visual experience that I had ever been exposed to," Armstrong once said.


Microsoft's New Logo

For the first time in 25 years, Microsoft is changing its logo. In advance of one of the most significant waves of product launches in Microsoft’s history, today we are unveiling a new logo for the company.

It’s been 25 years since we’ve updated the Microsoft logo and now is the perfect time for a change. This is an incredibly exciting year for Microsoft as we prepare to release new versions of nearly all of our products. From Windows 8 to Windows Phone 8 to Xbox services to the next version of Office, you will see a common look and feel across these products providing a familiar and seamless experience on PCs, phones, tablets and TVs. This wave of new releases is not only a reimagining of our most popular products, but also represents a new era for Microsoft, so our logo should evolve to visually accentuate this new beginning.

The Microsoft brand is about much more than logos or product names. We are lucky to play a role in the lives of more than a billion people every day. The ways people experience our products are our most important “brand impressions”. That’s why the new Microsoft logo takes its inspiration from our product design principles while drawing upon the heritage of our brand values, fonts and colors.

The logo has two components: the logotype and the symbol. For the logotype, we are using the Segoe font which is the same font we use in our products as well as our marketing communications. The symbol is important in a world of digital motion (as demonstrated in the video above.) The symbol’s squares of color are intended to express the company’s diverse portfolio of products.

Starting today, you’ll see the new Microsoft logo being used prominently. It will be used on Microsoft.com – the 10th most visited website in the world. It is in three of our Microsoft retail stores today (Boston, Seattle’s University Village and Bellevue, Wash.) and will shine brightly in all our stores over the next few months. It will sign off all of our television ads globally. And it will support our products across various forms of marketing. Fully implementing a change like this takes time, so there may be other instances where you will see the old logo being used for some time.

We’re excited about the new logo, but more importantly about this new era in which we’re reimagining how our products can help people and businesses throughout the world realize their full potential.

Posted by Jeff Hansen
General Manager, Brand Strategy, Microsoft

Simple script to backup all MS SQL Server databases at once

Problem
Sometimes things that seem complicated are much easier then you think and this is the power of using T-SQL to take care of repetitive tasks.  One of these tasks may be the need to backup all databases on your server.   This is not a big deal if you have a handful of databases, but I have seen several servers where there are 100+ databases on the same instance of SQL Server.  You could use Enterprise Manager to backup the databases or even use Maintenance Plans, but using T-SQL is a much simpler and faster approach.

Solution
With the use of T-SQL you can generate your backup commands and with the use of cursors you can cursor through all of your databases to back them up one by one.  This is a very straight forward process and you only need a handful of commands to do this. 

Here is the script that will allow you to backup each database within your instance of SQL Server.  You will need to change the @path to the appropriate backup directory and each backup file will take on the name of"DBnameYYYDDMM.BAK".

DECLARE @name VARCHAR(50) -- database name  
DECLARE @path VARCHAR(256) -- path for backup files  
DECLARE @fileName VARCHAR(256) -- filename for backup  
DECLARE @fileDate VARCHAR(20) -- used for file name 

SET @path = 'C:\Backup\'  

SELECT @fileDate = CONVERT(VARCHAR(20),GETDATE(),112) 

DECLARE db_cursor CURSOR FOR  
SELECT name 
FROM master.dbo.sysdatabases 
WHERE name NOT IN ('master','model','msdb','tempdb')  

OPEN db_cursor   
FETCH NEXT FROM db_cursor INTO @name   

WHILE @@FETCH_STATUS = 0   
BEGIN   
       SET @fileName = @path + @name + '_' + @fileDate + '.BAK'  
       BACKUP DATABASE @name TO DISK = @fileName  

       FETCH NEXT FROM db_cursor INTO @name   
END   

CLOSE db_cursor   
DEALLOCATE db_cursor

In this script we are bypassing the system databases, but these could easily be included as well.  You could also change this into a stored procedure and pass in a database name or if left NULL it backups all databases.  Any way you choose to use it, this script gives you the starting point to simply backup all of your databases.

Next Steps

  • Add this script to your toolbox
  • Modify this script and make it a stored procedure to include one or many parameters
  • Enhance the script to use additional BACKUP options 

The HTTP status codes in IIS 7.0 and in IIS 7.5

This section describes the HTTP status codes that IIS 7.0 / 7.5 uses.

Note This article does not list every possible HTTP status code as dictated in the HTTP specification. This article includes only the HTTP status codes that IIS 7.0 can send. For example, a custom Internet Server API (ISAPI) filter or a custom HTTP module can set its own HTTP status code.

1xx - Informational

These HTTP status codes indicate a provisional response. The client computer receives one or more 1xx responses before the client computer receives a regular response. 

IIS 7.0 uses the following informational HTTP status codes:

  • 100 - Continue.
  • 101 - Switching protocols.

2xx - Success

These HTTP status codes indicate that the server successfully accepted the request. 

IIS 7.0 uses the following success HTTP status codes:

  • 200 - OK. The client request has succeeded.
  • 201 - Created.
  • 202 - Accepted.
  • 203 - Nonauthoritative information.
  • 204 - No content.
  • 205 - Reset content.
  • 206 - Partial content.

3xx - Redirection

These HTTP status codes indicate that the client browser must take more action to fulfill the request. For example, the client browser may have to request a different page on the server. Or, the client browser may have to repeat the request by using a proxy server. 

IIS 7.0 uses the following redirection HTTP status codes:

  • 301 - Moved permanently.
  • 302 - Object moved.
  • 304 - Not modified.
  • 307 - Temporary redirect.

4xx - Client error

These HTTP status codes indicate that an error occurred and that the client browser appears to be at fault. For example, the client browser may have requested a page that does not exist. Or, the client browser may not have provided valid authentication information. 

IIS 7.0 uses the following client error HTTP status codes:

  • 400 - Bad request. The request could not be understood by the server due to malformed syntax. The client should not repeat the request without modifications.

    IIS 7.0 defines the following HTTP status codes that indicate a more specific cause of a 400 error:
    • 400.1 - Invalid Destination Header.
    • 400.2 - Invalid Depth Header.
    • 400.3 - Invalid If Header.
    • 400.4 - Invalid Overwrite Header.
    • 400.5 - Invalid Translate Header.
    • 400.6 - Invalid Request Body.
    • 400.7 - Invalid Content Length.
    • 400.8 - Invalid Timeout.
    • 400.9 - Invalid Lock Token.
  • 401 - Access denied.

    IIS 7.0 defines several HTTP status codes that indicate a more specific cause of a 401 error. The following specific HTTP status codes are displayed in the client browser but are not displayed in the IIS log:
    • 401.1 - Logon failed.
    • 401.2 - Logon failed due to server configuration.
    • 401.3 - Unauthorized due to ACL on resource.
    • 401.4 - Authorization failed by filter.
    • 401.5 - Authorization failed by ISAPI/CGI application.
  • 403 - Forbidden. 

    IIS 7.0 defines the following HTTP status codes that indicate a more specific cause of a 403 error:
    • 403.1 - Execute access forbidden.
    • 403.2 - Read access forbidden.
    • 403.3 - Write access forbidden.
    • 403.4 - SSL required.
    • 403.5 - SSL 128 required.
    • 403.6 - IP address rejected.
    • 403.7 - Client certificate required.
    • 403.8 - Site access denied.
    • 403.9 - Forbidden: Too many clients are trying to connect to the Web server.
    • 403.10 - Forbidden: Web server is configured to deny Execute access.
    • 403.11 - Forbidden: Password has been changed.
    • 403.12 - Mapper denied access.
    • 403.13 - Client certificate revoked.
    • 403.14 - Directory listing denied.
    • 403.15 - Forbidden: Client access licenses have exceeded limits on the Web server.
    • 403.16 - Client certificate is untrusted or invalid.
    • 403.17 - Client certificate has expired or is not yet valid.
    • 403.18 - Cannot execute requested URL in the current application pool.
    • 403.19 - Cannot execute CGI applications for the client in this application pool.
    • 403.20 - Forbidden: Passport logon failed.
    • 403.21 - Forbidden: Source access denied.
    • 403.22 - Forbidden: Infinite depth is denied.
    • 403.502 - Forbidden: Too many requests from the same client IP; Dynamic IP Restriction limit reached.
  • 404 - Not found. 

    IIS 7.0 defines the following HTTP status codes that indicate a more specific cause of a 404 error:
    • 404.0 - Not found.
    • 404.1 - Site Not Found.
    • 404.2 - ISAPI or CGI restriction.
    • 404.3 - MIME type restriction.
    • 404.4 - No handler configured.
    • 404.5 - Denied by request filtering configuration.
    • 404.6 - Verb denied.
    • 404.7 - File extension denied.
    • 404.8 - Hidden namespace.
    • 404.9 - File attribute hidden.
    • 404.10 - Request header too long.
    • 404.11 - Request contains double escape sequence.
    • 404.12 - Request contains high-bit characters.
    • 404.13 - Content length too large.
    • 404.14 - Request URL too long.
    • 404.15 - Query string too long.
    • 404.16 - DAV request sent to the static file handler.
    • 404.17 - Dynamic content mapped to the static file handler via a wildcard MIME mapping.
    • 404.18 - Querystring sequence denied.
    • 404.19 - Denied by filtering rule.
    • 404.20 - Too Many URL Segments
  • 405 - Method Not Allowed.
  • 406 - Client browser does not accept the MIME type of the requested page.
  • 408 - Request timed out.
  • 412 - Precondition failed.

5xx - Server error

These HTTP status codes indicate that the server cannot complete the request because the server encounters an error.

IIS 7.0 uses the following server error HTTP status codes:

  • 500 - Internal server error. 

    IIS 7.0 defines the following HTTP status codes that indicate a more specific cause of a 500 error:
    • 500.0 - Module or ISAPI error occurred.
    • 500.11 - Application is shutting down on the Web server.
    • 500.12 - Application is busy restarting on the Web server.
    • 500.13 - Web server is too busy.
    • 500.15 - Direct requests for Global.asax are not allowed.
    • 500.19 - Configuration data is invalid.
    • 500.21 - Module not recognized.
    • 500.22 - An ASP.NET httpModules configuration does not apply in Managed Pipeline mode.
    • 500.23 - An ASP.NET httpHandlers configuration does not apply in Managed Pipeline mode.
    • 500.24 - An ASP.NET impersonation configuration does not apply in Managed Pipeline mode.
    • 500.50 - A rewrite error occurred during RQ_BEGIN_REQUEST notification handling. A configuration or inbound rule execution error occurred.
      Note Here is where the distributed rules configuration is read for both inbound and outbound rules.
    • 500.51 - A rewrite error occurred during GL_PRE_BEGIN_REQUEST notification handling. A global configuration or global rule execution error occurred.
      Note Here is where the global rules configuration is read.
    • 500.52 - A rewrite error occurred during RQ_SEND_RESPONSE notification handling. An outbound rule execution occurred.
    • 500.53 - A rewrite error occurred during RQ_RELEASE_REQUEST_STATE notification handling. An outbound rule execution error occurred. The rule is configured to be executed before the output user cache gets updated.
    • 500.100 - Internal ASP error.
  • 501 - Header values specify a configuration that is not implemented.
  • 502 - Web server received an invalid response while acting as a gateway or proxy. 

    IIS 7.0 defines the following HTTP status codes that indicate a more specific cause of a 502 error:
    • 502.1 - CGI application timeout.
    • 502.2 - Bad gateway.
  • 503 - Service unavailable. 

    IIS 7.0 defines the following HTTP status codes that indicate a more specific cause of a 503 error:
    • 503.0 - Application pool unavailable.
    • 503.2 - Concurrent request limit exceeded.

Common HTTP status codes and the causes

The causes of some common HTTP status codes are as follows:

  • 200 - OK. IIS 7.0 successfully processed the request.
  • 304 - Not modified. The client browser requests a document that is already in the cache, and the document has not been modified since the document was cached. The client browser uses the cached copy of the document instead of downloading the document from the server.
  • 400 - Bad request. The Http.sys file blocks IIS 7.0 from processing the request because of a problem in the request. Typically, this HTTP status code means that the request contains characters or sequences that are not valid or that the request contradicts the security settings in the Http.sys file.
  • 401.1 - Logon failed. The logon attempt is unsuccessful probably because of a user name or a password that is not valid. For more information about how to resolve this problem, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942044 Error message when you try to run a Web application that is hosted on IIS 7.0: "HTTP Error 401.1 - Not Found"
  • 401.2 - Logon failed due to server configuration. This HTTP status code indicates a problem in the authentication configuration settings on the server. For more information about how to resolve this problem, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942043 Error message when you try to visit a Web page that is hosted on IIS 7.0: "HTTP Error 401.2 - Unauthorized"
  • 401.3 - Unauthorized due to ACL on resource. This HTTP status code indicates a problem in the NTFS file system permissions. This problem may occur even if the permissions are correct for the file that you are trying to access. For example, this problem occurs if the IUSR account does not have access to the C:\Winnt\System32\Inetsrv directory. For more information about how to resolve this problem, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942042 Error message when you try to browse a Web page that is hosted on a server that is running IIS 7.0: "HTTP Error 401.3 - Unauthorized"
  • 401.4 - Authorization failed by filter. An ISAPI filter does not let the request be processed because of an authorization problem. For more information about how to resolve this problem, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942079 Error message when you visit a Web site that is hosted on IIS 7.0: "HTTP Error 401.4 - Authorization failed by filter"
  • 401.5 - Authorization failed by ISAPI/CGI application. An ISAPI application or a Common Gateway Interface (CGI) application does not let the request be processed because of an authorization problem. For more information about how to resolve this problem, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942078 Error message when you visit a Web site that is hosted on a computer that is running IIS 7.0: "HTTP Error 401.5 - Authorization failed by ISAPI/CGI application"
  • 403.1 - Execute access forbidden. The appropriate level of the Execute permission is not granted. For more information about how to resolve this problem, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942065 Error message when you visit a Web site that is hosted on IIS 7.0: "HTTP Error 403.1 - Forbidden"
  • 403.2 - Read access forbidden. The appropriate level of the Read permission is not granted. Verify that you have set up IIS 7.0 to grant the Read permission to the directory. Additionally, if you use a default document, verify that the default document exists. For more information about how to resolve this problem, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942036 Error message when you visit a Web site that is hosted on IIS 7.0: "HTTP Error 403.2 - Forbidden"
  • 403.3 - Write access forbidden. The appropriate level of the Write permission is not granted. Verify that the IIS 7.0 permissions and the NTFS file system permissions are set up to grant the Write permission to the directory. For more information about how to resolve this problem, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942035 Error message when you visit a Web site that is hosted on IIS 7.0: "HTTP Error 403.3 – Forbidden"
  • 403.4 - SSL required. The request is made over a nonsecure channel, and the Web application requires a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) connection. For more information about how to resolve this problem, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942070 Error message when you visit a Web site that is hosted on IIS 7.0: "HTTP Error 403.4 - Forbidden"
  • 403.5 - SSL 128 required. The server is configured to require a 128-bit SSL connection. But, the request is not sent by using 128-bit encryption. For more information about how to resolve this problem, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942069 Error message when you try to browse a Web page that is hosted on IIS 7.0: "HTTP Error 403.5 - Forbidden"
  • 403.6 - IP address rejected. The server is configured to deny access to the current IP address. For more information about how to resolve this problem, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942068 Error message when you visit a Web site that is hosted on IIS 7.0: "HTTP Error 403.6 - IP Address Rejected"
  • 403.7 - Client certificate required. The server is configured to require a certificate for client authentication. But, the client browser does not have an appropriate client certificate installed. For more information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942067 Error message when you try to run a Web application that is hosted on a server that is running IIS 7.0: "HTTP Error 403.7 - Forbidden"
  • 403.8 - Site access denied. The server is configured to deny requests based on the Domain Name System (DNS) name of the client computer. For more information about how to resolve this problem, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942066 Error message when you visit a Web site that is hosted on IIS 7.0: "HTTP Error 403.8 - Forbidden"
  • 403.12 - Mapper denied access. The page that you want to access requires a client certificate. But, the user ID that is mapped to the client certificate is denied access to the file. For more information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942064 Error message when you visit a Web site that is hosted on IIS 7.0: "HTTP Error 403.12 - Client Certificate Denied"
  • 403.13 - Client certificate revoked. The client browser tries to use a client certificate that was revoked by the issuing certification authority. For more information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942063 Error message when you visit a Web site that is hosted on IIS 7.0: "HTTP Error 403.13 - Forbidden"
  • 403.14 - Directory listing denied. The server is not configured to display a content directory listing, and a default document is not set. For more information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942062 Error message when you visit a Web site that is hosted on IIS 7.0: "HTTP Error 403.14 - Forbidden"
  • 403.16 - Client certificate is untrusted or invalid. The client browser tries to use a client certificate that is not trusted by the server that is running IIS 7.0 or that is not valid. For more information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942061 Error message when you visit a Web site that is hosted on IIS 7.0: "HTTP Error 403.16 - Forbidden"
  • 403.17 - Client certificate has expired or is not yet valid. The client browser tries to use a client certificate that is expired or that is not yet valid. For more information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942038 Error message when you try to visit a Web page that is hosted on Internet Information Services 7.0: "HTTP Error 403.17 (Forbidden) - The client certificate has expired"
  • 403.18 - Cannot execute requested URL in the current application pool. A custom error page is configured, and the custom error page resides in a different application pool than the application pool of the requested URL. For more information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942037 Error message when you visit a Web site that is hosted on IIS 7.0: "HTTP Error 403.18 - Forbidden"
  • 403.19 - Cannot execute CGI applications for the client browser in this application pool. The identity of the application pool does not have the Replace a process level token user right. For more information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942048 Error message when you visit a Web site that is hosted on IIS 7.0: "HTTP Error 403.19 - Forbidden"
  • 404.0 - Not found. The file that you are trying to access was moved or does not exist. For more information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942041 Error message when you try to open a Web page that is hosted on IIS 7.0: "HTTP Error 404.0 - Not Found"
  • 404.2 - ISAPI or CGI restriction. The requested ISAPI resource or the requested CGI resource is restricted on the computer. For more information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942040 Error message when you try to visit a Web page that is hosted on a computer that is running IIS 7.0: "HTTP Error 404.2 – Not Found"
  • 404.3 - MIME type restriction. The current MIME mapping for the requested extension type is not valid or is not configured. For more information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942032 Error message when users visit a Web site that is hosted on a server that is running Internet Information Services 7.0: "HTTP Error 404.3 - Not Found"
  • 404.4 - No handler configured. The file name extension of the requested URL does not have a handler that is configured to process the request on the Web server. For more information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942052 Error message when you visit a Web site that is hosted on IIS 7.0: "HTTP Error 404.4 - Not Found"
  • 404.5 - Denied by request filtering configuration. The requested URL contains a character sequence that is blocked by the server. For more information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942053 Error message when you visit a Web site that is hosted on IIS 7.0: "HTTP Error 404.5 - URL Sequence Denied"
  • 404.6 - Verb denied. The request is made by using an HTTP verb that is not configured or that is not valid. For more information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942046 Error message when you visit a Web site that is hosted on IIS 7.0: "HTTP Error 404.6 - VERB_DENIED"
  • 404.7- File extension denied. The requested file name extension is not allowed. For more information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942045 Error message when you try to browse a Web page that is hosted on IIS 7.0: "HTTP Error 404.7 - FILE_EXTENSION_DENIED"
  • 404.8 - Hidden namespace. The requested URL is denied because the directory is hidden. For more information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942047 Error message when you try to visit a Web page that is hosted on IIS 7.0: "HTTP Error 404.8 - HIDDEN_NAMESPACE"
  • 404.9 - File attribute hidden. The requested file is hidden. For more information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942049 Error message when you try to visit a Web site that is hosted on IIS 7.0: "HTTP Error 404.9 - File Attribute Hidden"
  • 404.10 - Request header too long. The request is denied because the request headers are too long. For more information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942077 Error message when you visit a Web site that is hosted on a server that is running Internet Information Services 7.0: "HTTP Error 404.10 - REQUEST_HEADER_TOO_LONG"
  • 404.11 - Request contains double escape sequence. The request contains a double escape sequence. For more information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942076 Error message when you visit a Web site that is hosted on IIS 7.0: "HTTP Error 404.11 - URL_DOUBLE_ESCAPED"
  • 404.12 - Request contains high-bit characters. The request contains high-bit characters, and the server is configured not to allow high-bit characters. For more information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942075 Error message when you visit a Web site that is hosted on IIS 7.0: "HTTP Error 404.12 - URL_HAS_HIGH_BIT_CHARS"
  • 404.13 - Content length too large. The request contains a Content-Length header. The value of the Content-Length header is larger than the limit that is allowed for the server. For more information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942074 Error message when you visit a Web site that is hosted on a server that is running Internet Information Services 7.0: "HTTP Error 404.13 - CONTENT_LENGTH_TOO_LARGE"
  • 404.14 - Request URL too long. The requested URL exceeds the limit that is allowed for the server. For more information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942073 Error message when you visit a Web site that is hosted on IIS 7.0: "HTTP Error 404.14 - URL_TOO_LONG"
  • 404.15 - Query string too long. The request contains a query string that is longer than the limit that is allowed for the server. For more information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942071 Error message when you visit a Web site that is hosted on a server that is running IIS 7.0: "HTTP Error 404.15 - Not Found"
  • 404.17 - Dynamic content mapped to the static file handler. For more information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    2019689 Error message when you visit a Web site that is hosted on IIS 7.0: "HTTP Error 404.17 - Not Found"
  • 405.0 - Method not allowed. The request is made by using an HTTP method that is not valid. For more information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942051 Error message when a user visits a Web site that is hosted on a server that is running Internet Information Services 7.0: "HTTP Error 405.0 - Method not allowed"
  • 406.0 - Invalid MIME type. The request is made by using an Accept header that contains a MIME value that is not valid. For more information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942050 Error message when you visit a Web site that is hosted on a server that is running Internet Information Services 7.0: "HTTP Error 406 - Not Acceptable"
  • 412.0 - Precondition failed. The request is made by using an If-Match request header that contains a value that is not valid. For more information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942056 Error message when you visit a Web site that is hosted on Internet Information Services (IIS) 7.0: "HTTP Error 412 - Precondition failed"
  • 500 - Internal server error. This HTTP status code may occur for many server-side reasons. For more information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942031 Error message when you visit a Web site that is hosted on IIS 7.0: "HTTP Error 500.0 - Internal Server Error"
  • 500.11 - Application is shutting down on the Web server. The request is not processed because the destination application pool is shutting down. Wait for the worker process to finish shutting down, and then try the request again. If this problem persists, the Web application may be experiencing problems that prevent the Web application from shutting down correctly.
  • 500.12 - Application is busy restarting on the Web server. The request is not processed because the destination application pool is restarting. This HTTP status code should disappear when you refresh the page. If this HTTP status code appears again after you refresh the page, the problem may be caused by antivirus software that is scanning the Global.asa file. If this problem persists, the Web application may be experiencing problems that prevent the Web application from restarting correctly.
  • 500.13 - Web server is too busy. The request is not processed because the server is too busy to accept any new incoming requests. Typically, this HTTP status code means that the number of incoming concurrent requests exceeds the number that the IIS 7.0 Web application can process. This problem may occur because the performance configuration settings are set too low, the hardware is insufficient, or a bottleneck occurs in the IIS 7.0 Web application. A common troubleshooting method is to generate a memory dump file of the IIS 7.0 processes when the error is occurring and then to debug the memory dump file.
  • 500.15 - Direct requests for Global.asax are not allowed. A direct request for the Global.asa file or for the Global.asax file is made. For more information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942030 Error message when you visit a Web site that is hosted on IIS 7.0: "HTTP Error 500.15 - Direct request for global.asa are not allowed"
  • 500.19 - Configuration data is invalid. This HTTP status code occurs because of a problem in the associated Applicationhost.config file or in the associated Web.config file. For more information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942055 Error message when you visit a Web site that is hosted on IIS 7.0: "HTTP Error 500.19 - Internal Server Error"
  • 500.100 - Internal ASP error. An error occurs during the processing of an Active Server Pages (ASP) page. To obtain more specific information about the error, disable friendly HTTP error messages in the Web browser. Additionally, the IIS log may show an ASP error number that corresponds to the error that occurs. For more information about ASP error messages and about the meaning of ASP error messages, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    294271 ASP error codes
  • 501.0 - Not implemented. The client browser sends an HTTP-Trace verb, and the server is not configured to process the HTTP-Trace verb. For more information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942058 Error message when you visit a Web site that is hosted on IIS 7.0: "HTTP Error 501.0 - Not Implemented"
  • 502.1 - CGI application timeout. A CGI application does not return a valid HTTP response in the configured time limit. For more information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942059 Error message when you visit a Web site that is hosted on IIS 7.0: "HTTP Error 502.1 - Bad Gateway"
  • 502.2 - Bad gateway. A CGI application returns an HTTP response that is not valid to the server that is running IIS 7.0. For more information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    942057 Error message when you visit a Web site that is hosted on IIS 7.0: "HTTP Error 502.2 - Bad Gateway"
  • 503.0 - Service unavailable. The request is sent to an application pool that is currently stopped or that is currently disabled. To resolve this issue, make sure that the destination application pool is started. The event log may give information about why the application pool is stopped or disabled.
  • 503.2 - Concurrent request limit exceeded. The appConcurrentRequestLimit property is set to a value that is lower than the current number of concurrent requests. IIS 7.0 does not allow more concurrent requests than the value of the appConcurrentRequestLimit property.

MSSQL Server-Level Roles

To easily manage the permissions on your server, SQL Server provides several roles, which are security principals that group other principals. Roles are like groups in the Microsoft Windows operating system.

Fixed server roles are provided for convenience and backward compatibility. Assign more specific permissions whenever possible.

Server-level roles are also named fixed server roles because you cannot create new server-level roles. Server-level roles are server-wide in their permissions scope.

You can add SQL Server logins, Windows accounts, and Windows groups into server-level roles. Each member of a fixed server role can add other logins to that same role.

The following table shows the server-level roles and their capabilities.

 

Server-level role name

Description

sysadmin

Members of the sysadmin fixed server role can perform any activity in the server.

serveradmin

Members of the serveradmin fixed server role can change server-wide configuration options and shut down the server.

securityadmin

Members of the securityadmin fixed server role manage logins and their properties. They can GRANT, DENY, and REVOKE server-level permissions. They can also GRANT, DENY, and REVOKE database-level permissions if they have access to a database. Additionally, they can reset passwords for SQL Server logins.

Security noteSecurity Note
The ability to grant access to the Database Engine and to configure user permissions allows the security admin to assign most server permissions. Thesecurityadmin role should be treated as equivalent to the sysadmin role.

processadmin

Members of the processadmin fixed server role can end processes that are running in an instance of SQL Server.

setupadmin

Members of the setupadmin fixed server role can add and remove linked servers.

bulkadmin

Members of the bulkadmin fixed server role can run the BULK INSERT statement.

diskadmin

The diskadmin fixed server role is used for managing disk files.

dbcreator

Members of the dbcreator fixed server role can create, alter, drop, and restore any database.

public

Every SQL Server login belongs to the public server role. When a server principal has not been granted or denied specific permissions on a securable object, the user inherits the permissions granted to public on that object. Only assign public permissions on any object when you want the object to be available to all users.

For specific information about server-level role permissions, see Permissions of Fixed Server Roles (Database Engine).